Day 1 :
- Pharmacology | Cardiovascular Pharmacology | Clinical Pharmacology and Receptor Theory
Joseph D. Miller did postdocs in dopamine electrophysiology and in circadian biology 1979-1984. In 1984 he became project director for a space shuttle project in primate circadian rhythms out of the University of California. In 1987 he moved to Stanford and became director of neurochemistry for the Stanford-Upjohn Center. In 1994 he moved to Texas Tech Health Sciences Center and left there in 2000 to become director of pharmacology at the Keck School of Medicine at USC. Currently he is chair of pharmacology at American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine. His research interests are in the biological mechanisms of drug abuse and dependency, and the neuropharmacology of sleep and circadian rhythms. He had been associated with the University of Texas Addiction Research Center for many years and have given many workshops on the neurobiology of drug addiction under their auspices.
Objectives: Current theories of severe substance use disorder (chemical dependence) have tended to focus on either the initial phases of the process when the individual experiences WANT or on the later phases when the predominant experience is NEED for the drug. The present review integrates these two phases of the dependence process using information from our own formulation in conjunction with other theories and selected results from our own work and the anti-drug craving literature.
Methods: Utilizing targeted searches of the literature we have recently developed an integrated theory of severe substance use disorder (dependence) that integrates incentive sensitization, receptor down-regulation, psychomotor stimulant, and opponent process theories into a common neurochemical framework (Pakdaman et al., 2014; Wilcox and Miller, 2016) .
Results: Persistence of craving implies and neurobiological research has confirmed that chemical dependence changes brain chemistry in those regions of the brain that are associated with emotion, motivation and decision-making (the limbic system). The key parts of the limbic system that are most altered by the chemical dependence process are the mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine (DA) system and the nigrostriatal DA system. The anatomical substrate of chemical dependence includes specific portions of the DA projections to the forebrain. Significantly, all major theories of drug dependency associate DA in these anatomical pathways with the different stages and effects of drug usage and chemical dependence. We discuss in this paper the relationship between dopamine neuroanatomy and neurophysiology and the well-known drug dependency continuum stretching from LIKE to WANT to NEED.
Conclusions: We suggest that there is a continuum of drug abuse extending from LIKE to WANT to NEED and that the phenomena of these states and the transitions among them are explicable in terms of dopamine receptor and dopamine transporter regulation.
Cairo University, Egypt
Mamoun Abdelaziz has worked in the career of pharmaceutical industry for 11 years, In the field of analytical chemistry, methodology and validation. Since 2007 he has been a researcher in analytical chemistry department- faculty of pharmacy- Cairo University since 2012. He did master degree in drugs containing carboxylic acid derivatives. His recent publication are Real-time potentiometric sensor; an innovative tool for monitoring hydrolysis of chemo/bio-degradable drugs in pharmaceutical sciences & quote; is published in journal of biomedical and pharmaceutical analysis. Editorial board member in journal of pharmacovigilance and pharmacotherapeutics, journal of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Asian journal of Life sciences, in Frontiers in Drug, Chemistry and Clinical Research and in CPQNN journal. Invited keynote speaker and plenary speaker in many international conferences worldwide.
Over the last decade, the field of Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics and in vitro diagnostic (IVD) tests have been extensively used and acquired increasing prominence as an essential components in hospitals, clinics, or doctor’s offices. The outstanding opportunities offered by these devices greatly expanded the application fields and have placed these technologies at the forefront of the tests used in providing life-saving decisions to maintain health, manage disease, monitor therapy or pre- surgical operation examinations. Being portable and the unique ability of selective, and direct detection of ionic analytes in biological specimens without extraction, are very attractive features of potentiometric ISEs .Moreover, its ability to furnish a continuous real time signals which allows performing in vitro monitoring of the chemical species in chemical or biological reactions in the real time. This continuous monitoring capability eliminates the inconvenience associated with frequent sampling and removal of aliquots from the reaction which may introduce artifacts.
Our drug, Atracurium besylate (ATR) is a skeletal muscle relaxant used for anesthesia in surgical operations that undergoes chemo-degradation in vivo yielding its metabolite Laudanosine (LDS). A closer insight to the in vivo metabolic processes of ATR, it was reported to be susceptible to degradation by Hofmann elimination as a primary route and ester hydrolysis as a secondary route of chemo-degradation.LDS is the product of Hofmann elimination and is eliminated primarily by the liver.
Odessa National Medical University, Ukraine
Petro Antonenko is dedicated to improvement of diagnostic and treatment of socially important disease as tuberculosis. His profound study of the numerous genes in human that control drugs’ biotransformation could enhance an effectiveness and safety of various diseases treatment. He has built this model after years of experience in research and teaching both in hospital and education institutions, including teaching activity in Medical Faculty of Jimma University, Ethiopia (under WHO/UNDP/World Bank Special Programme for Ethiopia). He has been awarded by Grant of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine for young scientists (2000-2002) and Grant of Ministry of Health of Ukraine (2013-2015).
The risk of anti-TB drug-induced liver injury could be predicted by detection of certain genotype polymorphism in TB-patients. The aims of current research was to check the meaning of cytochrome P-503A4*1B (CYP3A4*1B) for toxicity of TB treatment. Materials and methods: CYP3A4*1B genotype was detected with the help of PCR among 105 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. The level of rifampicin in the blood was determined spectrophotometrically. We have considered medical records at the beginning and at the end of inpatient treatment. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Witney and Chi-square tests were used in this study.
Results: According to the genotype CYP3A4 *1B, 91.4% and 8.6% of the patients with pulmonary TB had homozygous wild-type gene (i.e., had high enzymatic activity) - AA and heterozygous AG genotype (moderate enzyme activity), correspondently. The peak of rifampicin’s concentration in blood was observed 4 hrs after its intake – 16.25 and 15.03 µg/ml in AA and AG genotype correspondently (p>0.05) (table). At the beginning of treatment in TB patients with AA genotype, the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Gamma Glutathione Transferase (GGT) were insignificantly higher than in carriers of AG genotypes (P>0.05). During treatment in TB clinic in the carriers of
AA genotype, the activity of ALT, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), and GGT has been enhanced, while the activity of ALT, AST and GGT in AG genotype carriers slightly declined (p>0.05). Moreover, in the end of in-patient treatment, the rate of ALT and GGT in the carriers of AA genotype was on 123.3% (p=0.003) and on 54.8% (p=0.039) correspondently higher than in the carriers of AG genotype.
Conclusion: Detection of CYP3A4 *1B genotype in the patients could predict liver injury during TB treatment.
Dubai Pharmacy College, UAE
Heyam Saad Ali, M. Pharm., and Ph-D from Bradford, UoK. She is working as a head of pharmaceutics department in Dubai Pharmacy College, UAE. Prof. contributed more than 70 articles to reputed international scientific journals and conferences, in different conventional, controlled and targeted drug delivery systems in pharmaceutical product development. She has been invited as speaker to numerous International conferences. Reviewer and member of editorial board of many international journals.
Currently used anticancer drugs are nonspecific towards cancer cells, due to poor aqueous soluble and permeable, pharmacokinetics and potential adverse effects. In addition, to the complex biological nature of cancer with various biological barriers, and physiological factors
Various Targeting Strategies of liposomes are currently used to overcome these limitations such as:
- Surface functionalization of liposomes - Targeting ligands with relevant surface engineering techniques
Possible biological targets in cancer cells, including:
- Extracellular targets and
- Intracellular targets and targets in
- Tumor microenvironment or vasculature targets
- Stimuli strategies
- Recent approaches for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at tumor site with relevant surface functionalization techniques
Current challenges of functionalized liposomes and future perspective of smart functionalized liposomes
In order to enhance delivery of anticancer agents, relevant surface functionalization techniques must be considered in the designing and formulation.
The success of cancer therapies is limited by their severe side effects and also the problems of drug resistance. These issues make it vital to explore potential molecular targets for anticancer therapy like PE which have strong potential for translation into future clinical applications. A number of membrane-active peptides and small molecules have been shown to bind PE specifically, subsequently eliciting membrane disruption. The ability of those molecules to recognize cancer cells is PE dependent, suggesting that PE is an efficient means of targeting cancers
Cancer-associated stimuli-responsive nanosystems have been increasingly considered for the delivery of anticancer drugs, which primarily target the tumor microenvironment and/or intracellular elements to enhance intratumoral accumulation and promote drug release at the target site. Therefore, strategies for enhanced delivery of anticancer agents at requisite location using stimuli-responsive functionalized liposomes.
Monno Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh
The present study was designed to establish a High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method of determination of ciprofloxacin in plasma so as to help to evaluate the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin in Bangladeshi healthy volunteers. In this study 8 (eight) Bangladeshi Bangalee healthy volunteers and 7 (seven) Bangladeshi Tribal healthy volunteers received 500 mg of ciprofloxacin (Cipro®) in intravenous route. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, 360, 480 and 720 minutes after drug administration. After 1 week of washout period, same volunteers of two groups received 500 mg of ciprofloxacin (Cipro®) in oral route. HPLC with ultraviolet detection was used to quantify plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations. In case of intravenous route, the AUC0–8h, Cmax, Tmax and T1/2 values for Bangladeshi Bangalee and Tribal healthy volunteers were 372.60 ± 29.21 & 380.75 ± 33.84 μg min/mL, 2.62 ± 0.31 & 2.72 ± 0.27 μg/mL, 30.00 ± 0.00 & 30.0 ± 0.0 min and 342.97 ± 33.54 & 301.12 ± 22.83 min respectively and the difference between these two groups of volunteers was not significant. In case of oral route, AUC0–8, Cmax, Tmax and T1/2 values for Bangladeshi Bangalee and Tribal healthy volunteers were 594.34 ± 61.03 & 689.63 ± 57.77 μg min/mL, 2.79 ± 0.33 & 3.12 ± 0.24 μg/mL, 97.50 ± 31.05 & 102.86 ± 29.28 min and 336.97 ± 30.88 & 307.43 ± 26.94 min respectively. The difference in AUC0–8, Cmax, Tmax and T1/2 values between these two groups of volunteers was significant. The mean percent absolute bioavailability in Bangladeshi Bangalee and Tribal healthy volunteers was 64.56 ± 3.31 and 74.08 ± 3.53 respectively. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin significantly varied among Bangladeshi Bangalee and Bangladeshi Tribal healthy volunteers indicating necessity of further study on population pharmacokinetic in these groups of people.
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Iran
Mb. Rezaee is an Iranian scientist. He completed his PhD. and Research work on Photochemistry or chemistry (Ag). And up to now his personal life for doing research with his co-worker on cultivation, extraction, formulation and produce natural products out of medicinal and Aromatic plants. He designed research apparatuses and pilot of essential oil distillation and herbal extraction. Published 6 Books on my subjects in Persian language and add international of two chapters of bio-activity of herbal extracts or essential oil on bacteria's. Finish it 65 projects with MSc. and PhD thesis students on medicinal plants. Publish more than 200 papers on this topic and related on this, in national and international (ISI) journals. His positions are scientist in Research Institute Forests and Rangelands (RIFR) -Tehran-IRAN, Chairman of "Union Medicinal plants of Iran" (UMPI) and chair member of "Iranian medicinal plants society" (IMPS). He got three national award about selected and important medicinal plant as natural product or instead of synthetic medicine and bio-logical uses.
Iran, on herbal played a key role in connecting various cultures and civilizations. Ethno-herbal and phyto- chemical dates back to a long time ago and a number of writings regarding this issue are left by great physicians e.g. Rhazes and Persian physician Avicenna (980 - 1,037 AD) that is being credited with perfecting the distillation process of essential oils found in the seeds, bark, stems, roots, flowers of plants. Expression, also referred to as cold pressing, is a method of extraction specific to citrus essential oils, such as lemon, sweet orange, and lime. The essential oil geraniol is added to some cosmetics to balance and revitalise the skin and non-water-based phytochemicals made up of terpenoid compounds. The essential oil known as lemon oil contains the terpene d-limonene. It is known for its ability to act as a natural solvent and a cleanser. Basil relaxant Uses: Migraines, scanty menstrual periods, Muscle relaxant, soothing to insect bites. Iran has hi ranks in medicinal and aromatic plant in natural resource and cultivated manner, traditional knowledge and producing of natural products in the world spatially in Middle East. Iran also is very famous in producing essential oil and water extraction from national plants spatially Rosa damacena, and Thym spp in differants, new and traditional distilation. The methods of extraction in Rosa damascena cultivated in extensive zone of Iran are shown different constitution E.g. citronellol and geraniol. These compounds and others are very popular in producing drug anti-cancer, anti-bacterial out of that and we should take care of over doses or toxicology. Medicinal and aromatic plants are offered in a wide variety of products on the world market.
Krish Biotech Research Private Limited, India
Raghib Husain and his drug discovery team is working on inflammation and metabolic disorders. His drug discovery team is extensively involved in evaluating new chemical entities in the therapeutic targets like ROR-gamma and GPR-120. Elucidating the mechanism of action of GPR-120 agonist in the treatment of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis, his team is involved in working on multiple in vitro and in vivo models of therapeutic relevance. He has more than thirty years of experience working in the area of preclinical research and regulatory toxicology. He has to his credit many research publications and is associated with several scientific societies. He has participated in several due diligences for successful strategic alliances and have been a member of Executive/Joint Steering/ Project review/ Research Committees of institutes for key decision making.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of disease states, ranging from simple steatosis (fatty liver) to steatosis with inflammatory changes (called as Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis, NASH) which may further progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In NASH, hepatic steatosis is associated with hepatic inflammation that may be histologically indistinguishable from alcoholic steatohepatitis.
NASH may be defined as a chronic liver disease with inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the absence of alcohol consumption (< 20 gr/day). Pathological features of NASH include simple hepatic steatosis and, more characteristically, liver cell damage and accompanying inflammation and/or fibrosis. The clinical significance of various molecular disturbances in NASH are complex and multi factorial. Several mechanisms may lead to steatosis, including increased fat, de novo lipogenesis and decreased free fatty β-oxidation, increased cytokines & chemokines that lead to necro-inflammation and fibrosis.
In the absence of any USFDA approved treatment for NASH, following approaches are being followed: Life style modifications, Experimental therapies and bariatric surgery, followed by liver transplantation as last option.
A therapy that is able to target the underlying metabolic, inflammatory and fibrotic components of NASH may become an effective therapy. In this direction, modulation of GPR120 receptor pathways may prove to be an effective way in reversing the NASH symptoms.
KBRPL2001 is novel GPR-120 agonist, has shown positive results in well validated in-vivo experimental models and studies confirm the potential of molecules in the treatment of NASH.
Sri Ramachandra University, India
Dr. Anand Priya M.D. (Pharm), M.H.Sc (Diab) working as a Assistant Professor at SRMC&RI Chennai, India. Her total awards are Four University first ranks -undergraduate, Dr. M.M.COOPER MERIT AWARD -2007, “DR. V. HEMA SUDHAKAR GOLD MEDAL” for the best outgoing student in M.D. Pharmacology. Employee Appreciation award 2017, SRMC&RI. Her special achievements are eminent faculty for 27th National Congress of Indian Society of Hypertension– BPCON 2017 at New Delhi from 01 – 03 September, 2017.Co-Chairperson in National conference on Medication Management and Use, SRMC&RI. Panelist in “Pain Management “, ‘Myocardial infarction’ discussion in ASPIRE’17 & 18, SRMC&RI. First prize in E-poster presentation in National Conference 2017 SRMC&RI. Presented paper at IPSCON, RACRT-2016. Publications in international journal. Participated in National conferences and International workshop. Faculty in-charge in SRMC Equinox 2016 and 2017. Facilitator and won prizes in PRODEV 2016 and Project day for Phase II- SRMC&RI.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has become a growing threat to human health in both developed and developing countries. Treatment of type II Diabetes mellitus is still a challenge. With continuing research work newer therapeutic approaches are available for the treatment of Type II Diabetes mellitus.
Objective: To analyse the efficacy and safety of newer therapeutic approaches for type II Diabetes mellitus.
Methodology : Analysis of various research studies have shown that the newer drugs in the management of type II Diabetes mellitus like Gliptins (eg: Sitagliptin)– which are Dipeptidy l Peptidase -4 inhibitor have glucose lowering effect with good safety profile, even in elderly and vulnerable patients. It causes less gastrointestinal adverse effect and has minimum risk of hypoglycemia. But some studies have stated that it can cause Acute Pancreatitis and other adverse effects like arthralgia. Glucagon like peptide - GLP-1 analogues or Incretin mimetics (eg: Liraglutide) are insulin tropic drug given by subcutaneous route. Incretin based therapies have the potential to protect the β cell mass and also suppresses the glucagon release. They also have positive effect on HbA1C, body weight (neutral or loss) and blood pressure control in individuals with hypertension. GLP-1 Analogues may cause gastrointestinal adverse effects and necrotizing pancreatitis (rarely). SGLT-2 (Sodium Glucose Cotranspoter 2) inhibitors (eg: Dapagliflozin) have an advantage of insulin independent glucose lowering effect. They block the glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the kidney by inhibiting the SGLT-2. They also help to reduce weight, blood pressure in type II DM. SGLT-2 inhibitors carry the risk of ketoacidosis, Urinary tract infection, genital mycosis. These newer drugs have also proven to reduce adverse cardiovascular effects. Amylin mimetic inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying and suppress appetite. Rapidly-acting insulin analogues such as insulin lispro and insulin aspart are preferred due to their prompt onset of action after dosing. There is evidence for reduced hypoglycemia with newer, longer-acting basal insulin analogs such as insulin Glargine , Detemir & Degludec . The drawback of these analogues is high cost. Inhaled insulin like Afreeza require more detailed investigations as it was found to produce pulmonary fibrosis and pharyngitis. Lifestyle modifications are one of the main factor for prevention and control of hyperglycaemia and associated complications.
Conclusion: Hence newer therapeutic approaches offer good treatment option for Type II Diabetes Mellitus either as monotherapy or in combination with conventional therapies.
Key words: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 inhibitor, Glucagon like peptide -1 analogues, Sodium Glucose Cotranspoter 2 inhibitors, hypoglycaemia.
Hamdard University, Pakistan
Background: Nature is highly enriched in therapeutic agents and scientist screens it continuously for better therapeutic agents. Plant isolated components, currently, used in broad spectrum therapeutics to treat variety of diseases. Pain is one of the most common symptoms associated with many of illnesses and the treatments, at present time, available are opioids and NSAIDs. Medicines in clinic are efficient, however, allied to severe complications and toxicities.
Objective: Need for more safer and potent analgesic motivates scientist to work on the nociceptive targets. This study we have tested the effect of Cassia fistula in rodent for its analgesic potential.
Patients and Methods / Material and Methods: Extraction was performed using simple extraction method. The yielded methanolic extract was then subjected to various analgesic tests such as acetic acid induced writhing, tail flick and tail immersion in mice or rats. Phytochemical analysis was performed for the presence of various chemical constituents in the MeCF. Phytochemical examination confirmed the presence of responsible components in the plant encourage us to hypothesize it as anti-nociceptive.
Results: Pain induced models based in-vivo testing assured approximately 12% and 22% better responses than standard diclofenac and tramadol, respectively. In the acetic acid induced writhing, tail flick and tail immersion tests MeCF at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly exhibited analgesic activity. The results were comparible to standard analgesic drugs i.e. diclofenic sodium (10 mg/kg) and tramadol (12.5 mg/kg).
Conclusion: The present finding suggests that MeCF possess effective phytochemical that is mainly responsible for its analgesic action. Further evaluation for mechanism of action is required to precisely explore its activity at molecular.
Keywords: Methanolic extract, Cassia Fistula, rodent and anti-nociceptive.
Day 2 :
- Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology | Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics | Toxicology
University of Rajasthan, India
Dr. Pratap Chand Mali did Ph.D, currently working as Associate Professor in the Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. He completed research projects “Evaluation of antifertility effects of some plants extract in male albino rats”, “Reversible contraceptive efficacy and safety evaluations of Withaferin-A and Withanolide-A in male rats: A biochemical and ultra-structural investigation” and “Screening of spermicidal and reversible contraceptive activities of Cassia occidentalis in male albino rats”. He have authored a book titled “Koshika Vigyan aur Aanuvanshki/Rajasthan Hindi Granth Academy, Jaipur. He was Awarded Talents Encouragement Award in the Second Congress of the Asia-Pacific Council on Contraception held at Macau, China on December 4-6, 2008. He Conferred: Best Citizen of India Award, 2010. He is a Life Member of Indian Science Congress Association, Indian Society for the Study of Reproduction and Fertility, Society for Reproductive Biology and Comparative Endocrinology and Indo Global Health Care Research Foundation.
Man used natural resources since ancient times. Plants and their products have been screened to drugs developments, because use of plants products claims no side effects in users. Populations from developing countries are facing complications from synthetic drugs used for primary health-care. Although, the development of a new drug from plants is a tedious, time-consuming, very expensive and multifaceted approach, however, more than 80% of drug substances in modern pharmacopeia are derived from natural resources. Plants products contribute a major source not only in drug discovery and development but also in socio economic development. Many drugs used for the treatment of malaria, cancer, HIV, bacterial and viral infections have been derived from the plants stem, bark, root, fruits or seeds.
Crude herbal extracts, secondary metabolites or pure phytochemicals have been used as pharmacological tools, for the treatment of various kinds of diseases or disorders e.g. cancer, HIV, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain due to their pharmacological properties. In last few decades a number of bioactive or pharmaceutical agents such as vincristine,quercetin, curcumin, alkaloid, steroid, sesquiterpene flavonoids, coumarin, and irinotecan etc have been isolated from plants in China, Korea, India and other developing countries to discover and development of drugs. In recent time herbal medicine has been improved in developing countries as alternatives to health problems and costs of pharmaceutical products. Since synthetic products are unsafe to human life and environment, natural products are considered to be free from side effects, several products of plant origins have been introduced to the United States market. Further modifications of the phytochemicals essential to drive molecules such as drugs like topotecan and teniposide led to the development of numerous drugs. Therefore, it is necessary to review the status of drug development from novel compounds of plants in clinical trials and FDA approvals for the human health in the present scenario.
Sri Vidyanikethan Engineering College, India
Prakash Kinthada is a Professor in Chemistry at Sri Vidyanikethan Engineering College, JNTU University in Ananthapur, A. Rangam Peta, Tirupathi, India.
Cancer is a dreadful disease and any practical solution in combating this disease is of paramount importance to public health. Cancer patients have burdened by drug induced toxic side effects, and no turned to seek help from the complementary and alternative medicine hoping for a better cure. Research on Platinum based drugs and Non Platinum based drugs is a Multi-Million Dollar Industry in USA and there is every need to produce safe drugs for the cure of this monstrous disease. Flavonoids have a long history of use in traditional medicines in many cultures. The phytochemical, curcumin is one of the major dietary flavonoid, belonging to a group of flavonol, Curcumin is a natural polyphenol. It is highly potential molecule capable of preventing and treating various cancers. Various dietary chemo preventive agents, turmeric powder or its extract are broadly used as therapeutic preparations in Indian System of medicine. We provide a summarized synthesis and structural determination of Curcumin Oxime, Curcumin Thiosemicarbazone derivative of Gold (III) complex. The use of these analogs for prevention of cancer tumor progression and treatments of human malignancies. A pharmacologic agent for treating and/or preventing cancer, among other diseases and conditions, and particularly breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancer, in humans and animals. The novel pharmacologic agent is an isoflavonoid or isoflavonoid mimetic covalently attached to a cytotoxic pharmacophore that, preferably has the ability to conjugate with a metal salt to form a more potent metal complex, particularly a Au (III) complex and other complexes of Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Copper etc.
My talk would mainly encompass different Transition Metal Complexes/Organometallic Compounds that are presently used as drugs, especially Anticancer and Anti-HIV drugs, apart from Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial and diseases like Arthritis and Parkinson’s Disease etc. The talk would mainly focus on the use of Medicinal Chemistry and its application to Drug Design and Development in Pharmaceutical Industry, especially Transition Metal Complexes and Organometallic Compounds viz. Gold, Platinum, Palladium and Ruthenium apart from Copper, Cobalt, Iron, Nickel, Zinc, cadmium etc.
PREAMBLE: Drugs are basically, Chemical agents which when taken by any of the various routes of administrations, alters physiological functions in the body. Most of these drugs interacts with sites in the body known as receptors, which is a macromolecular sites found in the membranes where some drugs bind, for interactions. Drugs can promote or inhibit these functions thereby impairing the normal functions of the body.
ADMINISTRATION: Drugs are to be given/ taken ONLY and IF prescribed by a qualified physicians in his area of competence for ONLY therapeutics(treatment) purposes. They are primarily used for diagnosis, preventions or cure of disorders in the body. ANY other use of drugs other than therapeutic purposes , is AN ABUSE or Misuse of Drugs. Drugs are not meant for recreational or social purposes. Drugs are normenclated according to its use, site of action(psychoactive drugs CNS),name of the diseases eg.(anti malarial) or by its mechanism of actions(Cyclo-oxygenase Cox- 1and 2 inhibitors ) etc. We have drugs such as psychoactive (that alters mental processes) drugs, sedatives(put to Sleep) , hypnotics ( put to sleep) anti depressants(Slow Down), anxiolytics, (relieve anxiety)emetics,( induce vomiting),Most of the drugs are also normenclated as anti- diseases, e.g(anti diarrhoea, anti- inflammatory, anti- Psychotic, anti- diabetics, anti ulcer, anti- hypertensives etc,This papers is focused on WHAT CAN OR SHOULD BE DONE PRACTICALLY TO PREVENT, AVOID OR REDUCE THE ABUSE OF these DRUGS(Especially the Psychoactive drugs).While some of these drugs used can be tolerated by the body, others are injurious to the body especially the psychoactive drugs. Most commonly abused drugs are the psychoactive drugs. (Canabis, Heroin, marijuana, morphine, tramadol, codeine Caffeine, Cocaine, alcohol, Tobacco, LSD . Most of them are stimulants , which activates the the CNS. They are classes of drugs frequently used recreationally Alcohols, just to mention a few these drugs. They are further sub- classified into categories. These drugs act mainly by changes in brain function and result in alterations in perception, mood, Consciousness or behaviour (these drugs often bring about subjective changes in consciousness and mood that the user may find rewarding and pleasant(eg euphoria, or sense of relaxation, Psychoactive drugs are used by humans for a number of reasons and purposes to achieve a specific end , the use vary widely in different cultures some of them are used medicinally, as drinks or sleep aids, Caffeiene is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance,. They are divided into different groups according to their pharmacological effects (anxiolytics eg benzodiazepines and barbiturates, Stimulants(uppers) which stimulate the mind and may cause euphoria but do not affect perception eg amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine. Depressants (downers including sedatives, hypnotics and opioids. Some promotes dreams images, and often evoke feelings of euphoria eg ethanol,(alcohol and beverages) opioids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and those that produce distinct alterations in perception these are the hallucinogens.(wikipeadia The free encyclopeadia).
DRUG OF ABUSE: The Psychoactive drugs are the most abused drugs by our youth and some misguided adults. These are drugs which exert their effects either as inhibitors, potentiators, synergistic or addictive effects on the physiological system, thereby altering Normal physiological functions in the body, The Psychoactives drugs which exert its effects on the Central Nervous System thereby depresses or enhances body activities/ functions. Generally all drugs are POISONS there is none which is not poison , the right dose differentiate a poison from remedy. Poisons are therefore dangerous to the body because it impairs body functions negatively.
Karakurom International University, Pakistan
From time immemorial, mushrooms have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder and folk medicine in Oriental practice. The chief medicinal uses of mushrooms discovered so far are as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, nephroprotective, and anti-microbial agents. One of the most common mushrooms is Trametes versicolor (Coriolus), a fungus that grows in wooded temperate zones year round on tree trunks, stumps, dead logs, and branches. In traditional oriental medicine, Coriolus was dried and ground into a tea where the observed healing properties prompted Chinese and Japanese scientists to begin clinical research on the use of this mushroom in clinical practice. The most common commercial extracts include polysaccharopeptide Krestin (PSK), the Japanese version, and polysaccharopeptide PSP, the Chinese version. Both are extracted from Coriolus mycelia. Numerous other neutraceutical extract preparations are available worldwide in forms such as tablets, syrups, capsules, food additives, and traditional forms such as teas. The present review updates the recent findings on the pharmacologically active compounds, their anti-tumor potential, and underlying mechanism of biological action in order to raise awareness for further investigations to develop cancer therapeutics from mushrooms. The mounting evidences from various research groups across the globe, regarding anti-tumor application of mushroom extracts unarguably make it a fast-track research area worth mass attention.
University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
Beenish Basharat, from past few months, working on the waste water treatment in which the sewage water of homes, industries or factories could be collected through sewerage pipes in large water ponds and let the algae grow in it naturally in the presence of sunlight. Sewage water contains all essential nutrients necessary for the growth of algae. Algae clean the water and after separation from water can be used to produce fuel, petroleum, animal feed etc. by chemically processing it. The water cleaned by algae could be used for fish farming and very suitable for it and also could be discharge in natural water body because it will be enough pure to discharge safely in natural water for further use. It is a recycling process and very cost effective way to use waste water. Nature given us enough resources and now it’s our duty to protect this resources.
Aquaculture and fisheries are not only providing employment but also ensure food security to malnourished nations. The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the impact of pelleted diet on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idella in semi-intensive culture system. For this, 100 individuals of C. carpio and 100 individuals of C. idella were collected and kept in four separate ponds containing 50 individuals each. Among these four ponds two ponds were classified as controlled (pond 1, 2) and two were treated (pond 3,4) Experimental trial was conducted for 6 months in earthen ponds at Fisheries research farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In the treated ponds the fish were fed with pellets of standard diet at standard rate. Physico-chemical parameters of each pond were measured on fortnightly basis. Growth performance such as weight gain, fork length, total length, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and condition factor was measured on fortnightly basis by applying various growth performance parameters. Data obtain in this study was statistically analyze by Mean±SD and variance analysis. Results of the study showed that C. carpio showed maximum weight gain in pond 3 (118.14±58.84) and minimum weight gain in pond 1 (104.33±53.11).C. idella showed maximum weight gain in pond 4 (116.19±57.73) and minimum weight gain in pond 2 (105.75±52.78). Maximum increase in length of C. carpio was measured in pond 3 (25.5±10.74) and minimum increase in length in pond 1 (22±7.9). C. idella showed maximum increase in length in pond 4 (26.12±10.94) and minimum increase in length in pond 2 (22.32±7.9). Fish in treated ponds provided with pelleted diet showed higher growth performance as compared to controlled ponds. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P<0.05) among different ponds on the basis of various growth parameters.